The global and especially regional security paradigm has dramatically changed following 24 February 2022, the day when the Russian Federation invaded Ukraine. The event has shattered peace and severely altered the security environment, generating pervasive instability and rising strategic as well as systemic competition, entailing operational aspects of defence and deterrence, capability building, technology and industry analysis, rules-based international order, and redefinition of multilateral strategy.  
          In this context, the NATO 2022 Strategic Concept, adopted on 29 June, at the NATO Summit in Madrid, identifies the Russian Federation as the most significant and direct threat to Allies’ security and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area, as it uses conventional, cyber and hybrid means to undermine the rules-based international order. That is why NATO will continue to respond to Russian threats and hostile actions in a united and responsible way, adopting a 360-degree approach to deterrence and defence, entailing not only a mix of capabilities, the space and cyber ones included, but also multi-region and multi-domain approaches. Under these circumstances, the People’s Republic of China is considered a systemic competitor. Therefore, as the challenges are more global, NATO must adapt to be capable of meeting them.
         The Strategic Concept mentions maritime security as key to peace and prosperity, the Allies expressing their determination to strengthen the posture and situational awareness to deter and defend against all threats in the maritime domain, uphold freedom of navigation, secure maritime trade routes and protect main lines of communications. Considering the above-mentioned aspects, the Black Sea region, together with the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea ones, are areas of strategic interest to NATO. That is why, the Alliance is determined to ensure that deterrence and defence posture remains credible, flexible, tailored and sustainable, which entails robust in-place, multi-domain, combat-ready forces, enhanced command and control arrangements, prepositioned equipment.
Romania, as a country in the Black Sea region, as well as a NATO and EU member state in the eastern flank, must remain a pillar of stability and a security provider in the region. The new Strategic Concept reaffirms that NATO’s key purpose is to ensure the collective defence of its members, based on the 360-degree approach and in line with the three essential core tasks. Moreover, the EU Strategic Compass’s objective is to make the EU a stronger and more capable security provider, able to protect its citizens and to contribute to international peace and security. In this context, the Strategic Concept and the Strategic Compass should be coordinated to be able to guarantee the Euro-Atlantic security, including by capability development initiatives. Concrete steps have been taken with regard to strengthening deterrence and defence posture in the eastern flank, especially following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
       Thus, Allies have reinforced the existing battlegroups and agreed to establish four more multinational battlegroups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, to ensure the extended NATO’s forward presence along the Alliance’s eastern flank. Moreover, at the 2022 NATO Summit in Madrid, Allies agreed to enhance the multinational battlegroups from battalions up to brigade size, where and when required. In addition, many activities undertaken by Allies nationally have contributed to increased activity in the eastern flank. Allies have sent additional ships, planes and troops to NATO territory in Eastern Europe, further reinforcing the Alliance deterrence and defence posture. The USA has strengthened its military presence in Poland, Romania and other Eastern allied countries. Other Allies, including the UK, the Netherlands, Spain and France have also announced additional military deployments in Romania, Bulgaria and the Black Sea. The Royal Netherlands Air Force deployed F-35 fighter aircraft in support of NATO’s enhanced Air Policing in Bulgaria.
     As far as Romania is concerned, the French Armed Forces have reinforced NATO’s multinational Battle Group Forward Presence with the SAMP/T surface-to-air missile defence system – MAMBA in support of the Alliance’s initiative to deter and defend the eastern flank of Europe. Since May 2022, the French Air Force have deployed the MAMBA last generation medium-range surface-to-air system as well as a centre of defence management in Romania. In order to enhance the system’s efficiency and to meet the needs of the NATO Integrated Air and Missile Defence, it is connected and integrated to the Romanian and NATO defence systems through a tactical data liaison. France is the framework nation supported by an alternative company of either Belgian or Dutch troops.
      As for the national effort, the Headquarters Multinational Corps South-East (Sibiu), the Multinational Brigade South-East (Craiova) and the Multinational Division South-East (Bucharest), providing command and control of NATO corps-level land operations in peacetime, crisis and conflict, represent Romania’s contribution to strengthening the allied presence of forces on the eastern flank of NATO. In the same vein and taking into consideration the Defence Investment Pledge, Romania’s defence budget was established to increase from 2% to 2.5% of GDP. The forecast suggests investment would account for 40% of the total defence budget by 2025, which places the focus on the national defence capability development too, including in the field of logistics and cutting-edge technology.
      All the above-mentioned aspects will be developed within the conference panels.

          The 2022 Romanian Military Thinking Conference is hosted by the Defence Staff, in the context of the anniversary of 163 years since the establishment of the Defence Staff.
          To address the issue of national security and defence, in the context of the latest developments in the security environment at the regional and global levels through the presentation and publication of scientific articles,
- to promote the security culture not only among the institutions within the national system of defence, public order and national security but also among those in the civil society;
- to simulate intellectual exercise among the military and civil personnel within the Armed Forces in the domains specific to security studies, military theory and art;
- to disseminate the most valuable papers presented at the conference, in a special issue of Gândirea militară românească/Romanian Military Thinking journal and in the Conference Proceedings;
- to promote the General Staff of Defense in the academic and professional environment in the field of security and defence at the national and international levels and to increase the visibility of the Romanian Military Thinking magazine;
- to enhance the cooperation of the Defence Staff with the institutions related to higher military education and the national system of defence, public order and national security;
- to conduct constructive debates between experts in the operational environment, in the military and civilian academic domain, as well as among the civilian security analysts, on topical themes relating to the evolution of security at the national and international level.

         An author may participate with a maximum of two papers, signed individually or as a co-author. A paper can have up to 3 co-authors.         
        The papers will be peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee.
        The Conference papers will be published in the Conference Proceedings volume having ISSN code, in English, both in print and electronically (limited edition, for academic libraries).
        Only the papers that are submitted before the deadline and are accepted following the scientific evaluation process will be published.

Contributors and Participants: 

A. Contributors:
• military services representatives;
• NDU and military academies representatives;
• Defence Staff representatives.

B. Romanian collaborators of Gândirea militară românească Journal, professors and students/Master's students/PhD candidates in military academies, Romanian Armed Forces military researchers; 

C. specialists, experts, academic staff and researchers from Romanian civil education and research institutions (the University of Bucharest, National School of Political and Administrative Studies), EURISC (European Institute for Risk, Security and Communication Management) Foundation, ESGA (Expert for Security and Global Affairs) Association, Monitorul Apărării, New Strategy Center, Ministry of Internal Affairs (Romanian Police, Romanian Border Police, Romanian Gendarmerie, General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Operational Centre for Emergency Situations), Romanian Intelligence Service, specialists and experts from other institutions belonging to the national system of defence, public order and national security, students, Master's students, PhD candidates.